Peer Reviewed Publications


[115] Kable, Y. L.‡; Shi, J.‡; Jeon, S.‡; Diao, Y*; Rogers, S. A.*; Guironnet, D.*; . “Synthesis and characterization of high-density and high degree of polymerization bottlebrush block copolymers for photonic applications”, submitted.

[114] Diao Y*., “Gentler, nanoscale ion implantation”, Nature Nanotechnology, 2024, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-024-01659-5.

[113] Davies, D.; Jeon, S.; Graziano, G.; Patel, B.; Liuw, W.; Strzalka, J.; Zhu, X.; Diao, Y.* “Direct Laser Writing Crystal Polymorphs of Organic Semiconductors for Phase Change Electronics”, ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2024, Accepted.

[112] Bersselaar, B. W. L.; Cattenstart, L. H. W.; Elangovan, K. E.; Chen, Y.-C.; Waal, B. F. M.; Tol, J.; Diao, Y.; Vantomme, G.; Meijer, E. W*. “Trade-off Between Processability and Device Performance in Donor-Acceptor Semiconductors revealed using Discrete Siloxane Side Chains”, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2024, 12, 6637-6644. DOI: 10.1039/D4TC00875H

[111] Sabury, S.‡; Xu, Z.‡; Saiev, S.; Davies, D.;  Osterholm, A. M.; Rinehart, J. M.; Mirhosseini, M.; Tong, B.; Kim, S.; Correa-Baena, J.-P.; Coropceanu, V.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Bredas, J.-L.; Diao, Y.; Reynolds, R. J*. “Non-Covalent Planarizing Interactions Yield Highly Ordered and Liquid Crystalline Conjugated Polymers”, Material Horizons, 2024, In press. DOI: 10.1039/d3mh01974h

[110] Angello N. H.‡; Friday D. M.‡; Hwang C.‡; Yi S.‡; Cheng A. H.; Flores T. T.; Jira E. R.; Wang. W.; Aspuru-Guzik A.*; Burke M. D.*; Schroeder C. M.*; Diao Y.*; Jackson N.*. “Closed-Loop Transfer Enables AI to Yield Chemical Knowledge”, Nature, 2024, Accepted. DOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv-2023-jqbqt 

[109] Burke, M.; Denmark, S.; Diao, Y.; Han, J.; Switzky, R.; Zhao, H., “Molecule Maker Lab Institute: Accelerating, Advancing, and Democratizing Molecular Innovation”, 2024, AI Magazine, 1-7. DOI: 10.1002/aaai.1254

[108] Khasbaatar, A.; Jones, A.; Fernando, P.; Sai, H.; Zhu, C.; Gann, E.; Reynolds, J.; Diao, Y., “Tuning solution aggregate structure of conjugated polymers to enable green solvent processing of organic solar cells”, Chem. Mater., 2024, 36, 6, 2819-2834. DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.3c03055.

[107] Wang, S.; Edupulapati, B.; Hagel, J.; Kwok, J.; Khasbaatar, A.; Quebedeaux, J.; Davies, D.; Ella Elangovan, K.; Wheeler, R.; Leakey, A.; Hill, C.; Varnavas, K.; Diao, Y*. “Highly stretchable wearable electronics for remote, autonomous plant growth monitoring”, Device, 2024, 2, 100322. DOI: 10.1016/j.device.2024100322.

    ** Highlighted on the Device journal cover.

    ** Highlighted by IlliniNews, SpaceDaily, DailyIllini, etc.
    “Revolutionizing plant growth: UI scientists leap toward outer-space farming” 03/24/2024
    “Study brings scientists a step closer to successfully growing plants in space” 03/14/2024

    **Highlighted by Astronomy
    “it’s hard to grow food in space. These sensors can help” 04/01/2024

[106] Sun, R.‡; Park, K. S.‡; Comstock, A.; McConnell, A.; Beratan, D.; You, W.; Hoffmann, A.; Yu, Z.-G., Diao, Y.*, Sun, D.* “Inverse Chirality-Induced Spin Selectivity Effect in Chiral Assemblies of π-Conjugated Polymers”, Nature Materials, 2024, DOI: 10.1038/s41563-024-01838-8.

    ** Highlighted by NCSUNews, EurekAlert!,, etc.
    “Printed polymer allows researchers to explore chirality and spin interactions at room temperature” 03/15/2024

[105] Jeon, S.‡; Kable, Y. L.‡; Kang, H.‡; Shi, J.‡; Wade, M. A.; Patel, B. B.; Pan, T.; Rogers, S. A.*; Sing, C. E.*; Guironnet, D.*; Diao, Y*. “Direct-Ink-Write Crosslinkable Bottlebrush Block Polymers for On-the-fly Control of Structural Color”, PNAS, 2024, 121 (9), e2313617121. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2313617121.

    ** Highlighted on the PNAS journal cover.

    ** Highlighted by c&en.
    “Printable polymer with tunable structural color” 02/26/2024

    ** Highlighted by Forbes.
    “Multi-Color Printing With Just One Ink Opens The Door To New Materials” 02/20/2024

    ** Highlighted by BeckmanInstitute, EurekAlert!,, etc.
    “Chameleons inspire new multicolor 3D-printing technology” 02/19/2024


[104] Bao, Z.; Diao, Y.; Wang, G.; and Risko C. “Thank You, Elsa! A Virtual Special Issue in Honor of Professor Elsa Reichmanis”, Chemistry of Materials, 2023, 35, 23, 9819–9820. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.3c02527

[103] Park, K. S.; Luo, X.; Kwok, J.; Khasbaatar, A.; Mei, J.; Diao, Y*. “Subtle molecular changes largely modulate chiral helical assemblies of achiral conjugated polymers by tuning solution-state aggregation”, ACS Central Science, 2023, 9, 11, 2096-2107. DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.3c00775

      ** Featured by University of Illinois, EurekAlert!, ScienceDaily, Phys.Org, Materials Today, etc.
      “Researchers identify unexpected twist while developing new polymer-based semiconductors”, 11/14/2023

[102] Lee, J.-H.; Khasbaatar, A.; Jones, A. L.; Hwang, C.; Kim, M.; Joseph, S.; Gann, E.; Lee, M.; Reynolds, J.; Diao, Y.* “Recycling the Energy of Indoor Light: Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics via a Ternary Blend Strategy”, ACS. Appl. Poly. Mater., 2023, 5, 6, 4199-4209. DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.3c00408

[101] DeLongchamp, D. M.; Diao, Y., “Introduction to molecular assembly of organic electronics”, Molecular Systems Design & Engineering, 2023, 8, 8-10. DOI: 10.1039/D2ME90036J

     **Editorial article for the themed collection of “Molecular assembly of organic electronics”.

[100] Khasbaatar, A.‡; Xu, Z.‡; Lee, J.-H.‡; Campillo-A. G.; Hwang, C.; Onusaitis, B.; Diao, Y.*, “From Solution to Thin Film: Molecular Assembly of π-Conjugated Systems and Impact on (Opto)electronic Properties”, Chemical Reviews, 2023, 123, 13, 8395-8487. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.2c00905

     **Invited for Chemical Review Thematic Issue – Emerging Materials for Optoelectronics.

[99] Davies, D.W.‡; Seo, B.‡; Park, S.K.; Shiring, S.B.; Chung, H.; Kafle, P.; Yuan, D.; Strzalka, J.W.; Weber, R.; Zhu, X.; Savoie, B.M.*; Diao, Y.* “A Tale of Two Transitions: Unraveling Two Distinct Polymorph Transition Mechanisms in One n-Type Single Crystal for Dynamic Electronics”. Nature Communications, 2023, 14, 1304. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-36871-9

[98] Park, S. K.; Sun, H.; Bernhardt, M.; Hwang, K.; Anthony, J.; Zhao, K.; Diao, Y., “Unraveling Molecular Design Principle of Ferroelasticity in Organic Semiconductor Crystals with Two-Dimensional Brickwork Packing”, Chemistry of Materials, 2023, 35, 1, 81-93. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.2c02534

[97] Khasbaatar, A.; Cheng, A.; Jones, A.; Kwok, J.; Park, S. K.; Komar, J.; Lin, O.; Jackson, N.; Chen, Q.; Reynolds, J.; Diao, Y., “Solution Aggregate Structures of Donor Polymers Determine the Morphology and Processing Resiliency of Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells”, Chemistry of Materials, 2023, 35, 7, 2713-2729. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.2c02141

[96] Davies, D. W.; Graziano, G.; Hwang, C.; Park, S. K.; Liu, W.; Yuan, D.; Mannsfeld, S.; Wang, S.-Y. G.; Chen, Y.-S.; Gray, D.; Zhu, X.; Diao, Y. “Controlling Polymorphic Transitions in n-Type Organic Semiconductor Single Crystals by Alkyl Chain Engineering”,  Crystal Growth & Design., 2023, 23, 2, 719-728. DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.2c00724.

[95] Awad, W.; Davies, D.W.; Campillo-Alvarado, G.; Diao, Y.; Naumov, P. et al. “Mechanical Properties and Peculiarities of Molecular Crystals”, Chemical Society Reviews, 2023, 52, 3098-3169.  DOI: 10.1039/D2CS00481J


[94] Kwok, J.J.; Vishwanathan, G.; Park, K.S.; Patel, B.B.; Zhao, D.; Juarez, G.; Diao, Y. “Understanding the Aggregation and Flow Response of Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers”, Macromolecules, 2022, 55, 22, 10153-10166. DOI:10.1021/acs.macromol.2c01359

[93] Xu, Z.; Park, K.S.; Kwok, J.J.; Lin, O.; Patel, B.B.; Kafle, P.; Davies, D.W.; Chen, Q.; Diao, Y. “Not all aggregates are made the same: Distinct structures of solution aggregates drastically modulate as-sembly pathways, morphology and electronic properties of conjugated polymers”. Advanced Materials, 2022, 34, 2203055. DOI:10.1002/adma.202203055

     ** Invited for the “Rising Stars” Series

[92] Patel, B.B.; Pan, T.; Chang, C.; Walsh, D.J; Kwok, J.J.; Park. K.S.; Patel, K.; Guironnet G.; Sing, C.E.; Diao, Y., “Concentration-Driven Self-Assembly of PS-b-PLA Bottle-brush Diblock Copolymers in Solution”. ACS Polymers Au, 2022, 2, 4, 232–244. DOI:10.1021/acspolymersau.1c00057

     ** Selected to be featured as an ACS Editors’ Choice Article

     ** Listed among “most read articles” of the journal

     ** Invited Front Cover

[91] Patel, B.B.; Walsh, D.J.; Patel, K.; Kim D.H.; Kwok, J.J.; Guironnet G.; Diao, Y. “Rapid, Interface-Driven Domain Orientation in Bottlebrush Diblock Copolymer Films During Thermal Annealing”. Soft Matter, 2022, 18, 1666-1677. DOI:10.1039/D1SM01634B

      **Invited for the Soft Matter Emerging Investigators Special Issue

[90] Kwok, J. J.; Park, K. S.; Patel, B. B.; Dilmurat, R.; Beljonne, D.; Zuo, X.; Lee, B.; Diao, Y. “Understanding Solution State Conformation and Aggregate Structure of Conjugated Polymers via Small Angle X-ray Scattering”. Macromolecules, 2022, 55, 11, 4353–4366. DOI:10.1021/acs.macromol.1c02449

[89] Pan, T.*; Dutta, S.*; Kamble, Y.*; Patel, B.B.*; Wade, M.*; Rogers, S.; Diao, Y.; Guironnet, D.; Sing, C.E., “Materials Design of Highly-Branched Bottlebrush Polymers at the Intersection of Modeling, Syn-thesis, Processing, and Characterization”, Chemistry of Materials, 2022, 34, 5, 1990–2024. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c04030

     ** Invited perspective

[88] Li, S.; Jira, E.; Angello, N.; Li, J.; Yu, H.; Moore, J.; Diao, Y.; Burke, M.; Schroeder, C.M. “Using Automated Synthesis to Understand the Role of Side Chains on Molecular Charge Transport”. Nature Communications, 2022, 13, 2102. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29796-2

     ** Highlighted by Materials Research Laboratory, ScienceDaily etc.
     “Automated synthesis allows for discovery of unexpected charge transport behavior in organic mole-cules”, 05/03/2022

[87] Kafle, P.; Huang, S.; Park, K.S.; Zhang, F.; Yu, H.; Kasprzak, C.; Kim, H.; Schroeder, C.M.; van der Zande, A.; Diao, Y. “Role of Interfacial Interactions in Graphene-Directed Assembly of Monolayer Conjugated Polymers”. Langmuir, 2022, 38, 22, 6984–6995. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00570

[86] Park, K.S.; Xue, Z.; Patel, B.B.; An, H.; Kwok, J. J; Kafle, P.; Chen, Q.; Shukla, D.; Diao, Y. “Chiral Emergence in Multistep Hierarchical Assembly of Achiral Conjugated Polymers”. Nature Communications, 2022, 2, 13, 2738, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-30420-6

     ** Highlighted by Beckman Institute, EurekAlert!, ScienceDaily etc.
     “Power up: New polymer property could boost accessible solar power”, 06/02/2022


[85] Kafle, P.; Sanghavi, R. (undergraduate); Punjani, S.(undergraduate); Davies, D.W.; Diao, Y. “Drastic Modulation of Molecular Packing and Intrinsic Dissolution Rate by Meniscus-Guided Coating of Extremely Confined Pharmaceutical Thin Films”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021. DOI:10.1021/acsami.1c08398

[84] Campillo-Alvarado, G.; Bernhardt, M.; Davies, W.D.; Soares, A.N.T.J.; Woods, T.J.; Diao, Y. “Modulation of π-stacking modes and photophysical properties of an organic semiconductor through isosteric cocrystalization”, J. Chem. Phys., 155, 071102 (2021) DOI:10.1063/5.0059770

    * Selected for the 2021 JCP Emerging Investigators Special Collection

[83] Pan, T.; Patel, B.B.; Walsh, D.J.; Dutta, S.; Guironnet, D.; Diao, Y.; Sing, C.E. “Implicit Side-Chain Model and Experimental Characterization of Bottlebrush Block Copolymer Solution Assembly”, Macromolecules, 2021, 54, 8, 3620-3633. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.1c00336

[82] Campillo-Alvarado, G.; Liu, R.; Davies, D.W.; Diao, Y., “Enhancing Single-Crystal Dichroism of an Asymmetric Azo Chromophore by Perfluorophenyl Embraces and Boron Coordination”, Crystal Growth & Design, 2021. DOI:10.1021/acs.cgd.1c00114 (Highlighted on journal cover)

** Highlighted on journal cover, 06/02/2021,

[81] Patel, B.B.; Chang, Y.; Park, S.K.; Wang, S.; Rosheck J.; Patel, K.; Walsh, D.; Guironnet, D.; Diao, Y. “PolyChemPrint: A Hardware and Software Framework for Benchtop Additive Manufacturing of Functional Polymeric Materials”, Journal of Polymer Science, 2021. DOI:10.1002/pol.20210086 (Invited for the “Young Investigator Special Issue”) Check here to learn more about PolyChemPrint.

[80] Zhou, K.; Li, W.; Patel, B.B.; Tao, R.; Chang, Y.(undergraduate); Fan, S.; Diao, Y.; Cai, L. “Three-Dimensional Printable Nanoporous Polymer Matrix Composites for Daytime Radiative Cooling”, Nano Letters, 2021, Articles ASAP, DOI:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04810

[79] Sun, H.; Park, S.K.; Diao, Y.; Kvam, E.P.; Zhao, K. “Molecular Mechanisms of Superelasticity and Ferroelasticity in Organic Semiconductor Crystals”, Chemistry of Materials, 2021, 33, 1883-1892. DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c00080 

[78] Davies, D.W.; Park, S.K.; Kafle, P.; Chung, H.; Yuan, D.; Strzalka, J.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Zhu, X.; Diao, Y., “Radically Tunable n-Type Organic Semiconductor via Polymorph Control”, accepted, Chem. Mater., 2021. DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c04678

[77] Park, K.S.; Kwok, J.J.; Kafle, P.; Diao, Y. “When Assembly Meets Processing : Tuning Multiscale morphology of Printed Conjugated Polymers for Controlled Charge Transport”, Chemistry of Materials, 2021, 33, 2, 469-468. DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c04152 (Invited perspective for the “Up and Coming” series)


[76] Xu, Z.; Park, K.S.; Diao, Y. “What Is the Assembly Pathway of a Conjugated Polymer From Solution to Thin Films?”, Frontiers in Chemistry, 2020, 8:583521. (Invited for the “Women in Science: Chemistry” article collection)

[75] Park, S.K.; Diao, Y. “Martensitic Transition in Molecular Crystals for Dynamic Functional Materials”, Chemical Society Reviews, 2020, 49, 8287-8314. (Invited for the “2020 Emerging Investigator Issue”)

[74] Shaw, L.; Diao, Y.; Martin-Noble, G.C.; Yan, H.; Hayoz, P.; Weitz, R.T.; Kälblein, D.; Toney, M.F.; Bao, Z. “Manipulation and Statistical Analysis of the Fluid Flow of Polymer Semiconductor Solutions during Meniscus-guided Coating”, MRS Bulletin, 2020, 1-14. DOI:10.1557/mrs.2020.306

[73] Zhang, F.; Mohammadi, E.; Qu, G.; Diao, Y. “Orientation Dependent Host-Dopant Interaction for Manipulating Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers”, Advanced Materials, 2020, 32, 2002823.

[72] Qu, G.; Park, K.S.; Kafle, P.; Zhang, F.; Kwok J.J.; Patel, B.; Smilgies. D.M.; Thomsen, L.; McNeill, C.; Diao, Y. “Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Mesophase Governs Interfacial Molecular Orientation of Conjugated Polymer Thin Films”, Chemistry of Materials, 2020, 32, 14, 6043-6054.

[71] Patel, B.B.; Walsh, D.J.; Kim, D.H.; Kwok J.J.; Lee, B.; Guironnet, D.; Diao, Y. “Tunable Structural Color of Bottlebrush Block Copolymers through Direct-Write 3D Printing from Solution”, Science Advances, 2020, 6 (24), eaaz7202. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz7202

** Highlighted on Illinois HomepageEurekAlert!Phys.orgScienceDaily etc. “Researchers mimic nature for fast, colorful 3D printing” 06/10/2020

** Highlighted on Science Advances front page as an online rotator featuring paper. “3D printing structure color – a custom designed 3D printing platform tunes structure color” 06/12/2020

** Featured on the front page of the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab as a Science Highlight. “Mimicking Nature for Fast, Colorful 3-D Printing” 06/17/2020

[70] Xia, P.; Davies, D.W.; Patel, B.B.; Qin M.; Liang, Z.; Graham K.R.; Diao, Y.; Tang, M.L “Spin-Coated Fluorinated PdS QD Superlattice Thin Film with High Hole Mobility”, Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 11174-11181.

[69] Park, S.K.*; Sun, H.*; Chung, H.; Patel, B.B.; Zhang, F.; Davies, D.W.; Zhao, K.*; Diao, Y.* “Super- and Ferro-elastic Organic Semiconductors for Ultraflexible Single Crystal Electronics”, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2020,

** Highlighted by Beckman Institute News, EurekAlert!, Science Daily,, etc. “Designing flexible and stretchable single crystal electronic systems” 05/13/2020

** Featured by Materials Today. “Organic crystal could stretch to electronics applications” 05/26/2020

** Selected as a “Hot Paper” by the Angewandte Chemie editors.

[68] Bischak, C. G.; Flagg, L.Q.; Yan, K.; Rehman, T.; Davies, D.W.; Quezada, R.J.; Onorato, J.W.; Luscombe, C.K.; Diao, Y.; Li, C.-Z.; Ginger, D.S. “A Reversible Structural Phase Transition by Electrochemical Ion Injection into a Conjugated Polymer”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2020,142, 16, 7434–7442. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b12769

[67] Chung, H.; Chen, S. (undergraduate); Garbay, G.; Geerts, Y.H.; Diao, Y. “Understanding the Role of Bulky Side Chains on Polymorphism of BTBT-based Organic Semiconductor Single Crystals”, Crystal Growth & Design, 2020, 20, 3, 1646-1654. DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.9b01372

[66] Kafle, P.; Zhang, F.; Schorr, N.B.; Huang, K.-Y.; Rodríguez-López J.; Diao, Y. “Printing 2D conjugated polymer monolayers and their distinct electronic properties”, Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 30, 1909787. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201909787

[65] Mohammadi, E.; Kafle, P.; Huang K.-Y.; Zhu, W.; Huang, J.; Jung, S.-H.; Lee, J.-K.; Evans, C.M.; Diao, Y., “Role of Multivalent Interactions in Dynamic-Template-Directed Assembly of Conjugated Polymers”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020, 12, 2753-2762.


[64] Chung, H.; Chen, S. (undergraduate); Sengar, N.; Davies, D.W.; Garbay, G.; Geerts, Y.H.; Clancy, P.; Diao, Y. “Single Atom Substitution Alters Polymorphic Transition Mechanism in Organic Electronic Crystals”, Chemistry of Materials, 2019, 31, 21, 9115-9126.

[63] Ding, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, W.; Jin, W.; Xiang, L.; Wang, Z.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, F.; Diao, Y.; McNeill, C.; Di, C.-A.; Zhang, D.; Zhu, D.. “Selenium-substituted DPP Polymer for High Performance p-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials”, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2019, 58, 18994-18999.

[62] Zhang, F.*; Lemaur, V.*; Choi, W.; Kafle, P.; Seki, S.;  Cornil, J.; Beljonne, D.; Diao, Y., “Repurposing DNA Binding Agents as H-bonded Organic Semiconductors”, Nature Communications, 2019, 10, 4217.

**Highlighted on Illinois homepage and by EurekAlert!, ScienceDaily etc. “Researchers repurpose failed cancer drug into printable semiconductor” 10/02/2019

**Featured by the National Science Foundation in their research news. 10/09/2019

[61] Zhu, W.; Mohammadi, E.; Diao, Y. “Quantitative Image Analysis of Fractal-like Thin Films of Organic Semiconductors”. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 2019, (invited for the special issue “Conjugated Polymers: From Synthesis, Transport Properties, to Device Applications”).

[60] Park, K. S.*; Kwok, J.J.*; Dilmurat, R.; Qu, G.; Kafle, P.; Luo, X.; Olivier, Y.; Lee, J.-K.; Mei, J.; Beljone, D.; Diao, Y. “Tuning Conformation, Assembly and Charge Transport Properties of Conjugated Polymers by Printing Flow”, Science Advances, 2019, Vol. 5, no. 8, eaaw7757. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7757

**Highlighted on Illinois homepage, EurekAlert!Science DailyPhys.orgthe Engineer etc.Printing flattens polymers, improving electrical and optical properties” 08/09/2019

[59] Teixeira de Rocha, C.; Qu, G.; Yang, X.; Shivshare R.; Hambsch, M.; Diao, Y.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B “Mitigating Meniscus Instabilities in Solution-Sheared Polymer Films for Organic Field-Effect Transistors”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces2019, 11, 33, 30079-30088, DOI : 10.1021/acsami.9b07832

[58] Mohammadi, E.; Qu, G.; Kafle, P.; Jung, S.-H.; Lee, J.-K.; Diao, Y. “Design Rules for Dynamic-Template-Directed Crystallization of Conjugated Polymers”, Molecular Systems Design & Engineering, 2019, DOI: 10.1039/C9ME00042A (Invited for MSDE Emerging Investigators 2020 Special Issue)

[57] Mohammadi, E.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, F.; Qu, G.; Jung, S.-H.; Zhao, Q.; Evans, C.M.; Lee, J.-K.; Shukla, D.; Diao, Y. “Ion Gel Dynamic Templates for Large Modulation of Morphology and Charge Transport Properties of Solution-Coated Conjugated Polymer Thin Films”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2019, 11, 25, 22561-22574, DOI : 10.1021/acsami.9b02923


[56] Qu, G.; Kwok, J.; Mohammadi, E.; Zhang, F.; Diao, Y. “Understanding Film-to-Stripe Transition of Conjugated Polymers Driven by Meniscus Instability”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces2018, 10, 40692-40701. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b13790

[55] Chung, H.; Ruzie, C.; Geerts, Y.H.; Diao, Y. “Hybrid mechanism of nucleation and cooperative propagation in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transition of an organic semiconductor”. Crystal Growth & Design. 2018, 18, 4245-4251. DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.8b00452 (selected for Emerging Investigators in Crystal Growth & DesignVirtual Issue)

[54] Horstman, E. M.*; Kafle, P.*; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kenis, P.J.A.; Diao, Y. “Solution Coating of Pharmaceutical Nanothin Films and Multilayer Nanocomposites with Controlled Morphology and Polymorphism”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018, 10 (12), 10480–10489. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b01074

[53] Chung, H.; Dudenko, D.; Zhang, F.; D’Avino, G.; Ruzie, C.; Richard, A.; Schweicher, G.; Beljonne, D.; Geerts, Y.H.; Diao. Y. “Rotator Side Chains Trigger Cooperative Transition for Shape and Function Memory Effect in Organic Semiconductors”.  Nature Communications. 2018, 9, 278. DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02607-9

** Highlighted on Illinois homepage, EurekAlert!, Science Daily, R&D magazine,, the Engineer etc. Shape-shifting organic crystals use memory to improve plastic electronics” 01/25/2018

** Top 50 most read Nature Communications physics articles published in 2018

[52] Patel, B.B., Diao, Y. “Multiscale Assembly of Organic Electronics: Critical Roles of Confinement, Fluid Flow and Interfaces”. Nanotechnology (Invited review for the ‘Focus Collection on Hierarchical Nanostructures’ themed issue). 2018, 29, 044004.


[51] Li, B.; Valverde, L.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhou, Y.; Li, S.; Diao, Y.; Wilson, W.; Schroeder, C.M. “Macroscopic Alignment and Assembly of π-Conjugated Oligopeptides Using Colloidal Microchannels”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017, 9, 41586–41593. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b13978

[50] Zhang, F.*; Mohammadi, E.*; Luo, X.; Strzalka, J.; Mei, J.; Diao, Y. “Critical Role of Surface Energy in Guiding Crystallization of Solution Coated Conjugated Polymer Thin Films”. Langmuir (Invited article for the ‘Early Career Authors in Fundamental Colloid and Interface Science’ themed issue). 2017, Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b02807

[49] Zhao, Y.; He, J.; Gumyusenge, A.; Qu, G.; Zhao, X.; Zhang H.; Diao, Y.; Mei, J. “Continuous Melt-Drawing of Highly Aligned Flexible and Stretchable Semiconductor Microfibers for Organic Electronics”. Advanced Functional Materials. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201705584

[48] Huang, D.; Yao, H.; Cui, Y.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Shen, H.; Jin, W.; Zhu, J.; Diao, Y.; Xu, W.; Di, C.; Zhu, D. “Conjugated Backbone Effect of Organic Small Molecules for n-Type Thermoelectric Materials with ZT over 0.2”. Journal of the American Chemical Society2017, 139, 13013-13023. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b05344

[47] Zhao, X.; Xue, G.; Qu, G.; Singhania, V.; Zhao, Y.; Butrouna, K.; Gumyusenge, A.; Diao. Y.; Graham, K.; Li, H.; Mei, J. “Complementary Semiconducting Polymer Blends: Influence of Side Chains of Matrix Polymers”. Macromolecules2017, 50, 6202-6209. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.7b01354

[46] Qu, G; Zhao, X; Newbloom, G.M.; Zhang, F.; Mohammadi, E.; Strzalka, J.; Pozzo, L.; Mei, J.; Diao, Y. “Understanding Interfacial Alignment in Solution Coated Conjugated Polymer Thin Films”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017, 9, 27863-27874. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b08133

[45] Xue, G.; Zhao, X.; Qu, G.; Xu, T., Gumyusenge, A.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Diao, Y.; Li, H.; Mei, J. “Symmetry Breaking in Side Chains Leading to Mixed Orientations in Polymer Thin Films and Improved Charge Transport”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2017, 9, 25426–25433. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b07624

[44] Mohammadi, E.; Zhao, C.; Meng, Y.; Zhang, F.; Qu, G.; Zhao, X.; Mei, J; Zuo, J.M.; Shukla, D.; Diao, Y. “Dynamic-Template-Directed Multiscale Assembly for Large-Area Coating of Highly-Aligned Conjugated Polymer Thin Films”. Nature Communications, 2017, 8, 16070. DOI:10.1038/ncomms16070

** Highlighted on Illinois homepage, Science Magazine, EurekAlert!, Science Daily, R&D magazine,, etc. Researchers develop dynamic templates critical to printable electronics technology” 07/13/2017

[43] Zhang, F.; Dai, X.; Zhu, W.; Chung, H.; Diao, Y. “Large Modulation of Charge Carrier Mobility in Doped Nanoporous Organic Transistors”. Advanced Materials. 2017, 1700411. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700411

[42] Zhang, F.; Qu, G.; Mohammadi, E.; Mei, J.; Diao, Y. “Solution-Processed Nanoporous Organic Semiconductor Thin Films: Towards Health and Environmental Monitoring of Volatile Markers”. Advanced Functional Materials. 2017, 1701117. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701117 (Highlighted on journal back cover)

** Highlighted on journal back cover, 06/16/2017, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770145
** Highlighted on Illinois homepage, Science Magazine, EurekAlert!,, etc. “Sensors detect disease markers in breath” 05/18/2017
** Most-read Analytica News, 05/22/2017


[41] Qu, G*; Kwok, J.*; Diao, Y. “Flow-Directed Crystallization for Printed Electronics”. Account of Chemical Research (Invited). 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00445

[40] Chung, H.; Diao, Y. “Polymorphism as an Emerging Design Strategy for High Performance Organic Electronics”. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 2016 4, 3915-3933. DOI: 10.1039/C5TC04390E (Invited article for the ‘Emerging Investigators’ themed issue)

[39] Zhang, C.; Zang, Y.; Zhang, F.; Diao, Y.; McNeill, C.R.; Di, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, D.; “Pursuing High-Mobility n-Type Organic Semiconductors by Combination of “Molecule-Framework” and “Side-Chain” Engineering”. Advanced Materials. 2016. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602598

[38] Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Qu, G.; Butrouna, K.; Diao, Y.; Graham, K.; Mei, J. “Complementary Semiconducting Polymer Blends: the Influence of Conjugation-Break Spacer Length in Matrix Polymers”. Macromolecules2016, Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.6b00050

[37] Zhao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Roders, M; Qu, G.; Diao, Y.; Ayzner, A.; Mei, J. “Complementary Semiconducting Polymer Blends for Efficient Charge Transport”. Chemistry of Materials2015, 27, 7164-7170.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03349

[36] Zhao, Y.; Zhao, X.; Di, C.; Diao, Y.; Mei, J. “Conjugation-Break Spacers in Semiconducting Polymers: Impact on Polymer Processability and Charge Transport Properties”. Macromolecules2015, 48 (7), pp 2048–2053DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00194

[35] Shah, U.V.; Amberg, C.; Diao, Y.; Yang, Z.; Heng, J.Y.Y “Heterogeneous nucleants for crystallogenesis and bioseparation”. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering. 2015, 8:69–75. DOI:10.1016/j.coche.2015.03.002

[34] Liu, Y.; Lee, H.; Wang, H.-W.; Santala, A.; Liu, F.; Diao, Y.; Briseno, A.*; Russell, T.P.* “NDI-based small molecule as promising non-fullerene acceptor for solution-processed organic photovoltaics”. Advanced Energy Materials. 2015. Accepted. DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201500195

Selected Publications prior to Illinois

[33] Diao, Y.*; Zhou, Y.*; Kurosawa, T.; Shaw, L.; Wang, C.; Park, S.; Guo, Y.; Reinspach, J.A.; Gu, K.; Gu, X.; Tee, B.C.K.; Pang, C.; Yan, H.; Zhao, D.; Toney, M.F.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z. “Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells”. Nature Communications, 2015. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8955

** Highlighted in SLAC, etc.

[32] Reinspach, J.A.; Diao, Y.; Giri, G.; Tassone, C.J.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.*; Bao, Z.* “Tuning the Morphology of Solution-Sheared P3HT: PCBM Films”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2016, 8, 1742-1751. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b09349

[31] Diao, Y.; Lenn, K.M.; Lee, W; Blood-Forsythe, M.A.; Xu, J.; Mao, Y.; Kim, Y.; Reinspach, J.; Park, S.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Xue, G.; Clancy, P.; Bao, Z.*; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.* “Understanding Polymorphism in Organic Semiconductor Thin Films Through Nanoconfinement”. Journal of the American Chemical Society2014, 136 (49), 17046-17057DOI: 10.1021/ja507179d

[30] Zhang, Y; Diao, Y.; Lee, H; Mirabito, T.; Johnson, R.W.; Puodziukynaite, E.; John, J; Carter, K.; Emrick, T.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Briseno, A. “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters for Controlling the Growth of Organic Single-Crystalline Nanopillars in Solar Cells”. Nano Letters14 (10), pp 5547–5554. DOI: 10.1021/nl501933q

** Highlighted in ScienceDaily: Blades of grass inspire advance in organic solar cells.

** Highlighted in MaterialsToday: Stacks of nanoscopic coins pay the way for solar power

[29] Diao, Y.; Shaw, L.; Bao, Z.*; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.* “Morphology Control Strategies for Solution-Processed Organic Field Effect Transistors”. Energy & Environmental Science.  2014, 7, 2145-2159. DOI : 10.1039/C4EE00688G

[28] Xu, J.*; Diao, Y.*; Zhou D.; Mao, Y.; Giri, G; Chen, W; Liu, N; Xue G.; Bao, Z. “Probing Interfacial Molecular Packing in TIPS-pentacene Organic Semiconductors by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering”. Journal of Materials Chemistry C. 2014, 2, 2985-2991.  DOI : 10.1039/C3TC32581D

[27] Diao, Y.; Tee. B.C-K.; Giri, G.; Xu, J.; Kim, D.H.; Becerril, H.A.; Stoltenberg, R.M.; Lee, T.H.; Xue, G.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z. “Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains”. Nature Materials. 2013, 12, 665-671. DOI:10.1038/nmat3650

** Highlighted on the front cover of Nature Materials

** Featured in Nature Materials News and Views. doi:10.1038/nmat3686

** Featured again in Nature Materials News and Views. doi: 10.1038/nmat4034

** SLAC press release, ScienceDailyR&D MagazineEurekAlert (AAAS), Materials360 (MRS), Materials todaythe EngineerPhys. OrgNanotechnology Now

[26] Mei, J.; Diao, Y.; Appleton, A.L.; Fang, L.; Bao, Z. “Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors”. JACS Perspectives (Invited review). 2013, 135, 6724-6746. DOI: 10.1021/ja400881n

[25] Bromberg, L.; Diao, Y.; Wu, H.; Speakman, S.; Hatton, T. A. “Chromium (III) Terephthalate Metal Organic Framework (MIL-101): HF-Free Synthesis, Structure, Polyoxometalate Composites, and Catalytic Properties”, Chemistry of Materials, 2012, 24, 1664–1675.

[24] Diao, Y.; Whaley, K. E.; Helgeson, M. E.; Woldeyes, M. A.; Doyle, P. S.; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Trout, B. L. “Gel-Induced Selective Crystallization of Polymorphs”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, 134, 673–684.

** Highlighted in JACS Spotlights, doi: 10.1021/ja212038r

[23] Diao, Y.; Helgeson, M. E.; Siam, Z. A.; Doyle, P. S.; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Trout, B. L. “Nucleation under Soft Confinement: Role of Polymer-Solute Interactions”, Crystal Growth & Design, 2012, 12, 508–517.

[22] Chunsrivirot, S.; Diao, Y.; Trout, B. L. “Binding Affinity of a Small Molecule to an Amorphous Polymer in a Solvent. Part I: Free Energy of Binding to a Binding Site”, Langmuir, 2011, 27, 6910–6919  DOI : 10.1021/la201508m

[21] Diao, Y.; Harada, T.; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Trout, B. L. “The Role of Nanopore Shape in Surface-Induced Crystallization”, Nature Materials, 2011, 10, 867–871.

** Featured in Nature Materials News and Views, doi:10.1038/nmat3157

** Chemistry World

** Most downloaded in Sept. 2011

[20] Diao, Y.; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Trout, B. L. “Surface Design for Controlled Crystallization: The Role of Surface Chemistry and Nanoscale Pores in Heterogeneous Nucleation”, Langmuir, 2011, 27, 5324-5334.

[19] Diao, Y.*; Helgeson, M. E. *; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Doyle, P. S.; Trout, B. L. “Controlled Nucleation from Solution Using Polymer Microgels”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133, 3756–3759.

Other co-authored publications

[18] Shaw, L; Hayoz, P.; Diao, Y.; Reinspach, J.; Toney, M.F.; Weitz, T.; Bao, Z. “Direct Uniaxial Alignment of a Donor-Acceptor Semiconducting Polymer using Single-Step Solution Shearing”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2016, 8 (14), 9285–9296DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b01607

[17] Gu, K.L.; Zhou, Y.; Gu, X.; Yan, H; Diao, Y.; Kurosawa, T.; Ganapathysubramanian, B.; Toney M.F.; Bao, Z. “Tuning Domain Size, Crystallinity, and Performance of Isoindigo/PCBM Solar Cells via Solution Shearing”. Organic Electronics. 2016, 40, 79-87DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2016.10.033

[16] Gu, X.; Reinspach, J.A.; Worfolk, B.; Diao, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Yan, H; Gu, K.L.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Toney M.F.; Bao, Z. “A compact roll-to-roll coater for in situ X-ray diffraction characterization of organic electronics printing”. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2016, 8 (3), pp 1687–1694. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b09174

[15] Mei, J.*; Wu, H.-C.*; Diao, Y.; Appleton A.; Wang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Lee, W.-Y.; Kurosawa, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Bao, Z. “Effect of Spacer Length of Siloxane-Terminated Side Chains on Charge Transport in Isoindigo-Based Polymer Semiconductor Thin Films”. Advanced Functional Materials. 2015, 25, 3455-3462.  DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500684

[14] W. Chao*; Lee, W.-Y.*; Kong, D.*; Pfattner, R.*; Schweicher, G.; Nakajima, R.; Lu, C.; Mei, J.; Lee, T.-H.; Wu, H.-C.; Lopez J.; Diao, Y.; Gu, X.; Himmelberger, S.; Niu, W.; Matthews, J.; He, M; Salleo, A.; Nishi, Y.; Bao, Z. “Significance of the Double-layer Capacitor Effect in Polar Rubbery Dielectrics and Exceptionally Stable Low-Voltage High Transconductance Organic Transistors.” Scientific Reports. 2015, 5, 17849. DOI:10.1038/srep17849

[13] Schweicher, G.; Lemaur, V.; Niebel, C.; Ruzié, C.; Diao, Y.; Goto, O.; Lee, W.-Y.; Kim, Y.; Arlin, J.-B.; Karpinska, J; Kennedy, A.R.; Parkin, S. R.; Olivier, Y.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Cornil, J.; Geerts, Y.H.*; Bao, Z.* “Bulky End-Capped [1]Benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes: Reaching High Mobility Organic Semiconductors by Fine Tuning of the Crystalline Solid-State Order”. Advanced Materials. 2015, 27 (19), 3066-3072DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500322

[12] Zhang, L.*; Liu, F.*; Diao, Y.; Marsh, H.; Colella, N.; Jayaraman, A.; Russell, T.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Briseno, A.. “The Good Host: Formation of Discrete One-Dimensional Fullerene “Channels” in Well-Ordered Poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) Oligomers”. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014, 136 (52), 18120-18130. DOI: 10.1021/ja510976n

[11] Niebel, C.*; Kim, Y.*; Ruzié, C.; Karpinska, J.; Chattopadhyay, B.; Schweicher, G.; Richard, A.; Lemaur, V.; Olivier, Y.; Cornil, J.; Kennedy, A.R.; Diao, Y.; Lee, W.-Y.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z.; Geerts, Y.H. “Thienoacene dimers based on the thieno[3,2-b]thiophene moiety: Synthesis, Characterization and Electronic Properties”. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2015, 3, 674-685. DOI: 10.1039/C4TC02158D

[10] Liu, D.; He, Z.; Su, Y.; Diao, Y.; Bao, Z.; Xu, J.; Miao, Q. “Self-Assembled Monolayers of Cyclohexyl-Terminated Phosphonic Acids as a General Dielectric Surface for High-Performance Organic Thin-Film Transistors”. Advanced MaterialsDOI: 10.1002/adma.201402822

[9] Wang, H.; Hsieh, B.; Jiménez-Osés, G.; Liu, P.; Tassone, C.; Diao, Y.; Lei, T.; Toney, M. F.; Houk, K. N.; Bao, Z.; “Solvent effects on polymer sorting of carbon nanotubes with applications in printed electronics”. SmallDOI: 10.1002/smll.201401890

[8] Ma, W.; Reinspach, J.; Zhou, Y.; Diao, Y.; McAfee, T.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z.*; Ade, H.* “Tuning Local Molecular Orientation–Composition Correlations in Binary Organic Thin Films by Solution Shearing”. Advanced Functional Materials25 (21), 3131-3137DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201500468

[7] Lee, W.; Giri, G.; Diao, Y.; Tassone, C.J.; Matthews, J.R.; Sorensen, M.L.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Chen, W.; Fong, H.H.; Tok, J.B.H.; Toney, M.F.; He, M.; Bao, Z. “Effect of Non-Chlorinated Mixed Solvents on Charge Transport and Morphology of Solution-Processed Polymer Field-Effect Transistors”. Advanced Functional Materials. 2014. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201303794

[6] Giri, G; Li, R; Smilgies, D.M.; Li, E. Q.; Diao, Y.; Lenn, K.; Chiu, M; Lin, D.; Allen, Ranulfo; Reinspach, J; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Thoroddsen, S; Clancy, P; Bao, Z*; Amassian, A.* “One-Dimensional Self-Confinement Promotes Polymorph Selection in Large Area Organic Semiconductor Thin Films”. Nature Communications. 2014. DOI:10.1038/ncomms4573

[5] Zhou, Y.; Kurosawa, T.;Ma, W.; Guo, Y.K.; Fang, L.;Vandewal, K.; Diao, Y.; Wang, C.; Yan, Q.; Mei, J.; Appleton, A.; Koleidat, G.; Gao, Y.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Salleo, A.; Ade, H.; Zhao, D.; Bao, Z. “High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cell via Polymer Side-Chain Engineering”. Advanced Materials. 2014. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201306242

[4] Jin, M.L.; Choi, J.K.; Kim, D.W.; Park, J.-M.; An, C.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, B.J.; Diao, Y.; J, H.-T. “Enhanced Thermal Stability of Organic Solar Cells on Nano Structured Electrode by Simple Acid Etching”. Organic Electronics. 2014, 15, 680-684.

[3] Naab, B.D.; Himmelberger, S.; Diao, Y.; Vandewal, K.; Wei, P., Lussem, B., Salleo, A. and Bao Z. “High Mobility N-Type Transistors Based on Solution-sheared Doped TIPS-pentacene Thin Films”. Advanced Materials. 2013, 25, 4663-4667.  DOI: 10.1002/adma.201205098

[2] Fang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Y-X.; Diao, Y.; Lee, W-Y.; Appleton, A.; Allen, R.; Reinspach, J.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z. “Side-chain Engineering of Isoindigo-Containing Conjugated Polymers Using Polystyrene for High Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells”. Chemistry of Materials. 2013, 25, 4874-4880. DOI: 10.1021/cm4024259

[1] Smilgies, D; Li, R; Giri, G; Chou KW; Diao, Y; Bao, Z; Amassian, A. “Look fast: Crystallization of conjugated molecules during solution shearing probed in-situ and in real time by X-ray scattering”. Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 1–3 (2012). DOI : 10.1002/pssr.201206507

** Highlighted on journal back cover.

** Featured in Materials Views


[1] Diao, Y.; Helgeson, M. E.; Myerson, A. S.; Hatton, T. A.; Doyle, P. S.; Trout, B. L. Compositions, Methods, And Systems relating to Controlled Crystallization And/Or Nucleation of Molecular Species. US Utility Patent No. 9138659. Filed date: 08/23/2011. Publication date: 09/22/2015.

[2] Diao. Y.; Tee. B.C-K.; Becerril, H.A.; Zhou, Y.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Bao, Z. “Coated Substrate Apparatus and Method”. US Utility Patent No. 9,863,057. Filed date: 4/28/2014. Publication date: 01/09/2018.

[3] Diao. Y.; Zhang, F. “Nanoporous Semiconductor Thin Films”. US Utility Application No. 15/676,617. Filed date: 8/14/2017. Publication date: 2/22/2018 under Publication No. US 2018/0052136

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